Nouns  Countable and Uncountable
Countable  Part 1

a pen

the pen

one pen

two pens

three pens
We looked at countable nouns in Nouns  Lesson 1.
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These nouns are easy to count (one, two, three).
A few, some, a lot of
a couple of pens
(2)
a few pens
(3)
some pens
a lot of pens
Answer
three bananas / a few bananas
Answer
five bananas / some bananas
Uncountable  Part 1
is + noun / noun phrase
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verb + noun / noun phrase
There are two main types:
Liquids
Too difficult to count
Example sentences:
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This is water.
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That is rice.
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Can I have wine please?
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I drank some water.
Incorrect sentences
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This is one water.
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That is rices.
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Can I have four wine please?
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I drank some waters.
NEVER add an 's' to the end of liquids or things which are hard to count.
Determiners: a little, some, a lot of
no water
a little water
some water
a lot of water
'Countable' forms of liquids
To count uncountable nouns you must use a 'countable' form, or the container the liquid is in.
can of...
can of Cocacola
bottle of...
bottle of wine
bottle of water
cup of...
cup of tea
cup of coffee
glass of...
glass of wine
glass of water
pint of...
pint of beer
mug of...
mug of tea
mug of coffee
four glasses of beer
Answer
five cups of coffee
Answer
eight bottles of water
Answer
a bottle of Cocacola and two glasses of wine
Uncountable  Part 2
Previously liquid
All of these items are uncountable because they were liquid.
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However, they might have countable forms.
Bread
These are called 'loaves of bread'  countable
One loaf of bread
Two loaves of bread
Three loaves of bread
These are called 'slices of bread'  countable
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One slice of bread
Two slices of bread
Three slices of bread
This is just 'bread' and it is uncountable.
Example correct sentences:
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I baked a loaf of bread.

She bought two loaves of bread at the shop.

Would you like a slice of bread with your dinner?

How many slices of bread do you want for your sandwich?
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Example incorrect sentences:
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I baked some breads.

She bought breads at the shop.

Would you like a slice of breads with your dinner?

How many slices of breads do you want for your sandwich?
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Cake
There are three countable forms: whole, slice and piece.
a cake
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one cake
two cakes
three cakes
a piece of cake
two pieces of cake
three pieces of cake
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one slice of cake
two slices of cake
three slices of cake
a piece of cake
two pieces of cake
three pieces of cake
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one slice of cake
two slices of cake
three slices of cake
'Cake' is uncountable because it stays as 'cake' even in its smallest form.
Examples
I made a cake.
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She bought a birthday cake.
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We ate a cake today.
We had two slices of chocolate cake.
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I bought two pieces of cake at the supermarket.
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My colleague had two slices of cake for lunch!
I baked four cakes.
Chocolate
There are three common countable forms: chocolate, bars and pieces.
These chocolates are easy to count:
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one chocolate
two chocolates
three chocolates
one bar of chocolate
two bars of chocolate
three bars of chocolate
one piece of chocolate
two pieces of chocolate
three pieces of chocolate
'Chocolate' is uncountable because it stays as 'chocolate' even in its smallest form.
a bar of chocolate
one bar of chocolate
There are nine chocolates.
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There are some chocolates.
three bars of chocolate
Countable vs Uncountable
I bought a cake. *Countable
This is a cake. *Countable
There's only one slice of cake left.
I bought a cake. *Countable
This is 'cake'.
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It is uncountable because it is not in a complete form. It is not:

a whole cake

a slice

a piece
A big slice of cake.
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This is countable (slice)
Why isn't it 'a piece'?
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It's because no one would have a piece that big in its complete form.
This is 'cake'.
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It is uncountable because it is not in a complete form. It is not:

a whole cake

a slice

a piece
Uncountable
A slice of cake
All of these are 'some cake' (uncountable). Note that they are different amounts. They are not in a countable form so can't be counted.
Countable form
Uncountable  there is no complete form.
Uncountable  no complete form
Countable form
These are in a countable form:
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two slices of bread
These are not in a countable form. They are uncountable:
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bread
Countable form guide
Which one to use?

It is chocolate. It is an uncountable noun:

It is in a 'countable form' (bar) so we are able to count that form:
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There are three bars of chocolate.

It is chocolate. It is an uncountable noun:

It is in a 'countable form' (chocolate) so we are able to count that form:
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There are ten chocolates.
There are some chocolates.

It is chocolate. It is an uncountable noun:

It is in not in a 'countable form'.
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It is in 'pieces' but there are too many to count. Because it is hard to count it, it is uncountable.
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There is a lot of chocolate.