Used to indicate a starting point
The train is from Liverpool Street Station.
I'm getting the plane from San Francisco.
She's coming here straight from work.
We use 'from' to mark the starting point of a journey or piece of travel. In the first example 'the train' is 'from' Liverpool Street. This means that, for you, started at Liverpool Street Station.
To say where a noun came from
Pizza is originally from Italy.
Here's a pencil from my pencil case.
Fish and Chips is a traditional food from England.
I got this book from my mum.
Think of this like the starting point of the noun. 'Pizza' started in Italy, and so it is 'from' Italy. The book started with 'mum' and that where you got it, 'from mum'.
To say the remaining time / distance
We are 200 miles from Paris.
I'm 30 pages from the end of the book.
They're 30 minutes from getting here.
The player is a few goes away from winning.
In the last example 'a few goes' is the remaining amount before the final destination (winning).
Used to highlight a difference or distinction
He is different from me in many ways.
This wine is different from that wine.
The cake is free from nuts.
Here we use 'from' to distinguish between items.